deltal1011man
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RE: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Sun Mar 27, 2016 2:37 am

Quoting a380787 (Reply 5):
while DL's yet-to-be-delivered smaller order of 18 frames are RR .... for now.

very little chance that order (or any 787 order for DL) comes with GEs on them. TechOps is already going to be doing the Trent 1000, 7000 and XWB.
 
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Re: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Tue Jul 12, 2016 3:08 pm

The engine has now been certified.

The Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 TEN engine, which will power the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, has received official certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).
The certificate was officially presented by Trevor Wood, Certification Director, EASA, to Gareth Jones, Trent 1000 Chief Engineer, Civil Aerospace, Rolls-Royce at Farnborough Airshow today. The presentation was attended by Nicole Piasecki, Vice President Propulsion Division, Boeing.

Certification confirms the engine has fulfilled EASA’s airworthiness requirements and is the major engine milestone prior to the engine powering the 787 Dreamliner into service next year.


http://www.rolls-royce.com/media/press- ... -easa.aspx

tortugamon wrote:
I thought the Trent TEN was due to enter service his year.

tortugamon


It still is, but was originally supposed to be certified at the end of last year. There was a delay.
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Re: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Tue Jul 12, 2016 6:38 pm

KarelXWB wrote:
There was a delay.


According to flightglobal: -

Last year, R-R discovered that a new, cost-saving material used to make the banded stators in the compressor was not ready for operational service, so the company redesigned the component with a conventional metal, Moore says.

“That was a cost reduction opportunity and on the basis of the test results it didn’t work out as we thought it would,” he says. “We took time to fix that. Certification is an important milestone but what you want is a robust product and something the customer can use as an everyday, reliable machine.”

Moreover, fatigue testing on the Trent 1000-TEN revealed cracking in the intercase about one-third of the way through the 3,000h-cycle, Moore says. In that case, a pedestal attaching a solenoid to the intercase cracked under the pressure. After tearing down the engine, R-R discovered that the out-of-balance testing conditions had exceeded the design parameters, so the components were being shaken harder than the engine was expected to experience in service. R-R’s engineers have slightly lowered the pedestal to prevent cracking and the redesigned component should re-enter testing by July, Moore says.
 
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Re: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Thu Dec 08, 2016 12:34 pm

Some 4 months after obtaining EASA certification, RR and Boeing flew the Trent 1000-TEN on a 787 for the first time.

See https://vimeo.com/194802649

Press release: http://www.rolls-royce.com/media/press- ... -time.aspx

The Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 TEN has powered a Boeing 787 Dreamliner flight for the first time.

The flight, which took off and landed at Boeing Field, Seattle, Washington, US, marks the latest phase in the engine’s development programme.

The Trent 1000 TEN has also been selected to power the first test flight of the Boeing 787-10 version of the Dreamliner next year. This means the Trent 1000 will have powered the first flight of every version of the 787.


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Re: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Thu Dec 08, 2016 1:19 pm

KarelXWB wrote:
Some 4 months after obtaining EASA certification, RR and Boeing flew the Trent 1000-TEN on a 787 for the first time.


The Trent 1000 Ten isn't supposed to power the 787-8 (or is it a -9), is it? They are just using it as a test-bed, no?
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 1:21 pm

That would be correct.
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Re: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Thu Dec 08, 2016 1:28 pm

VSMUT wrote:
KarelXWB wrote:
Some 4 months after obtaining EASA certification, RR and Boeing flew the Trent 1000-TEN on a 787 for the first time.


The Trent 1000 Ten isn't supposed to power the 787-8 (or is it a -9), is it? They are just using it as a test-bed, no?


The presser ( http://www.rolls-royce.com/products-and ... pdate.aspx ) says:

The Trent 1000 TEN (Thrust, Efficiency and New technology) will power all three versions of the Boeing 787 and incorporates a new compressor system - already proven on the Trent XWB – with a new turbine design to provide thrust up to 78k lbf.


Similar statement is in the RR link in #54.

The TEN name doesn't mean 787-10 which may be the source of confusion.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 1:35 pm

When launched in 2013, RR clearly said it would only power the 787-9 and 787-10.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 1:42 pm

KarelXWB wrote:
When launched in 2013, RR clearly said it would only power the 787-9 and 787-10.


Interesting. Apparently they've changed their minds since. I don't think there will be many -8 sales but I guess they must have had enough interest to add it to the program. I'm a fan of the RR engines but it seems that GE is winning the competition on the 787 so RR needs as many opportunities as it can muster.

In retrospect the best thing that happened to RR is that GE decided it didn't want to stay on the A350.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 5:21 pm

When launched, that was the plan, just the -9 and the -10. But at sone point that changed and they decided it was to go on the -8 as well. No idea why.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 7:37 pm

lowbank wrote:
When launched, that was the plan, just the -9 and the -10. But at sone point that changed and they decided it was to go on the -8 as well. No idea why.


It's the latest spec of the engine with the best SFC so why would it not be offered across the line? Otherwise you're just improving GE's position on the -8 model. :)
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 7:59 pm

Somewhat of a moot point for the -8, doubt it will be in production in a few years, likely less than 400 ever will be built. But the -9 and -10 need it...I believe specific fuel burn on 787 never really got to spec even after previous RR/GE PIPs and not matching the A350.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 8:07 pm

Revelation wrote:
KarelXWB wrote:
When launched in 2013, RR clearly said it would only power the 787-9 and 787-10.


Interesting. Apparently they've changed their minds since.


It seems so.

RR has been under financial stress lately, perhaps they decided to streamline production and just keep the Trent 1000-TEN with different thrust ratings on offer?
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Dec 08, 2016 8:56 pm

This. It makes no sense to built the basic version for 6-10 copies a year at best.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Fri Dec 09, 2016 10:24 am

Stitch wrote:
lowbank wrote:
When launched, that was the plan, just the -9 and the -10. But at sone point that changed and they decided it was to go on the -8 as well. No idea why.


It's the latest spec of the engine with the best SFC so why would it not be offered across the line? Otherwise you're just improving GE's position on the -8 model. :)


I think it was possibly weight related!!!
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Feb 16, 2017 2:06 pm

RR today confirmed that the Trent 1000-TEN will go into service in the second half of this year. About one year later than originally planned.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Fri Feb 17, 2017 10:15 am

Anyone have latest sales figures for RR vs GE on the 787...it seems RR have been catching up on GE's historical lead...RR also asserting that they have the more reliable engine on the 787...


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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Fri Feb 17, 2017 4:49 pm

Faro wrote:
RR also asserting that they have the more reliable engine on the 787...


Does the GenX still have unexpected/excessive roll backs?
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Fri Feb 17, 2017 11:08 pm

Faro wrote:
Anyone have latest sales figures for RR vs GE on the 787...it seems RR have been catching up on GE's historical lead.


Yes, I'd like to see that.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Mon Feb 20, 2017 12:21 am

WIederling wrote:
Faro wrote:
RR also asserting that they have the more reliable engine on the 787...


Does the GenX still have unexpected/excessive roll backs?


GE issued a software update that resolved the issue in mid-2014 (there have been no incidents since) and the FAA relaxed the altitude restrictions in mid-2015 after verifying and certifying the change through additional ground testing (and perhaps the one year of no in-service issues).

http://aviationweek.com/technology/high ... 47-8-icing
 
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Re: RE: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Mon Feb 20, 2017 2:30 am

RR is doing well enough on the 787. GE promised a lot for cruise fuel burn that took two PIPs to achieve. The TEN brings RR into the lead.

As already noted, if EK orders the 787, that alone will skew towards RR.

Both are great engines, it was a tough airframe to get onto.

PM wrote:
Quoting AirbusA6 (Reply 22):Indeed for a short time, losing the 777 order to GE was seen as questioning RR's whole future in the big fan market.

"If not even BA are choosing RR engines, then why should anyone else"
...which is exactly what ANA said and changed their plan to buy RR in favour of PW.  

My recollection is that it was a Thai order for Trent 800s that steadied the ship and by the time RR landed the huge SQ order everyone could breathe a sigh of relief.

The SQ order woke everyone up to GE and Pratt issues on the 77E. It took the GE-90-115 to make that a stellar engine.

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Re: RE: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Mon Feb 20, 2017 7:57 am

lightsaber wrote:
RR is doing well enough on the 787.

Lightsaber


Roughly, GE have 60% and RR 40%. I wish it were the other way around but, to put it in context, RR will soon have sold as many engines on the 787 as GE and PW combined did on the A330.
 
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Re: RE: First Flight Of T1000-ten

Mon Feb 20, 2017 9:26 am

PM wrote:
Roughly, GE have 60% and RR 40%. I wish it were the other way around but, to put it in context, RR will soon have sold as many engines on the 787 as GE and PW combined did on the A330.


Is the momentum now with RR though?

Eric Schulz, Rolls-Royce, President – Civil Aerospace

The Trent 1000 has real momentum in the marketplace, winning more than 60 per cent of engine competitions in the last six years.


I don't know how that translates into numbers of engines?
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Mon Feb 20, 2017 10:09 pm

Found a few additional photos of the Trent 1000-TEN first flight. Will post them here for future reference:

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

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Rolls-Royce N787RR by cactusbillaz, on Flickr
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Mon Feb 20, 2017 11:21 pm

KarelXWB wrote:
Found a few additional photos of the Trent 1000-TEN first flight. Will post them here for future reference:

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

Image
Rolls-Royce N787RR by cactusbillaz, on Flickr

This would be more than enough evidence to convince Keesje that we'll soon be seeing a 747-8 NEO with T1000 Ten engines! :biggrin:
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Apr 25, 2017 10:03 am

Testing continues, this time on the 787 testbed:

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Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner Boeing Company N7874 by Huy Do, on Flickr
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Apr 25, 2017 11:28 am

Are engines on both sides the sane model, or are they just testing one side ?
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Apr 25, 2017 1:18 pm

The other engine does not have the Trent 1000-TEN decals, they may be testing one side only.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Apr 25, 2017 3:12 pm

KarelXWB wrote:
The other engine does not have the Trent 1000-TEN decals, they may be testing one side only.


If they are only testing the engine, then I can imagine it is only one side. If something goes wrong, they still have a good engine to fall back on.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Apr 25, 2017 9:34 pm

Dutchy wrote:
KarelXWB wrote:
The other engine does not have the Trent 1000-TEN decals, they may be testing one side only.


If they are only testing the engine, then I can imagine it is only one side. If something goes wrong, they still have a good engine to fall back on.


The A330neo looks like she will take to the skies with a pair of Trent 7000s based on what I have read, but I am guessing the 787 is using the same engine that was originally on the 747 test bed.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 03, 2017 8:46 pm

Boeing today performed an 18-hours ETOPS test above the USA.

In case you’re wondering, this was an ETOPS and systems functionality and reliability test for the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Ten engine.


https://twitter.com/jonostrower/status/ ... 7122732032

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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 1:10 am

Is anyone aware of any orders for the 1000-TEN for 788s or 789s? Or are they only being ordered for the 787-10 so far?
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 4:51 am

The information I've seen has said the 1000-ten has better climb performance then the GE engine but the GE engine is slightly more economical in cruise. Rolls was supposed to be doing a PIP to improve efficiency.

Does anyone know how closely these two engines compete?
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 8:23 am

tealnz wrote:
Is anyone aware of any orders for the 1000-TEN for 788s or 789s? Or are they only being ordered for the 787-10 so far?


My understanding is the TEN will supersede all previous T1000 models and for the full 787 range.
i.e. if the swap over is done you will only be able to get the TEN version for any new 787 if you have selected RR.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 10:18 am

tealnz wrote:
Is anyone aware of any orders for the 1000-TEN for 788s or 789s? Or are they only being ordered for the 787-10 so far?


If I'm not mistaken, Trent 1000-TEN will become the standard RR powerplant on all 787 variants.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 3:00 pm

ElroyJetson wrote:
The information I've seen has said the 1000-ten has better climb performance then the GE engine but the GE engine is slightly more economical in cruise. Rolls was supposed to be doing a PIP to improve efficiency.

Does anyone know how closely these two engines compete?

Most engine selection these days is down to financing/maintenance issues rather than any technical advantage.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 4:53 pm

trex8 wrote:
ElroyJetson wrote:
The information I've seen has said the 1000-ten has better climb performance then the GE engine but the GE engine is slightly more economical in cruise. Rolls was supposed to be doing a PIP to improve efficiency.

Does anyone know how closely these two engines compete?

Most engine selection these days is down to financing/maintenance issues rather than any technical advantage.



Thanks. That makes sense particularly in this case as both engines area very close from what I've read in overall performance.

The Trent 1000 ten does have slightly higher thrust per engine ( 1900 lbs) than the GE engine so it might make the Trent more attractive to ME3 carriers who are considering the 78J.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 7:59 pm

There's something missing here. If the 1000-TEN is as big a development as we've been told (e.g. 75% new parts, significant % improvement in SFC and maintenance costs, better range, better time between overhauls...) I'd expect it to be news when it starts being ordered for 788s and 789s. Yet there's nothing I can find on the web, either from airlines or from Rolls-Royce. And for those operators who do their own engine maintenance (there must still be some) you'd expect some hesitation about introducing an engine with mostly different parts - carriers generally want to avoid mixed fleets where they can. None of the comments above actually identify a 1000-TEN order for a 788 or 789...
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Tue Aug 08, 2017 9:00 pm

All I hear is it will be the 'standard build'. I don't know if previous versions continue to be available.

I don't know about 75% new parts. The Intermediate compressor is new - 'rising line' as in the XWB. The HP has blisks on the first 3 stages. I think it also has reprofiled compressor blades. I can't imagine the maintenance costs would out weigh the significant fuel consumption savings.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Wed Aug 09, 2017 8:59 am

tealnz wrote:
I'd expect it to be news when it starts being ordered for 788s and 789s. Yet there's nothing I can find on the web, either from airlines or from Rolls-Royce.


If the TEN indeed becomes the standard T1000 engine option, all new 787 deliveries will get the type anyway. I'd guess the only press release we will see is when the engine enters service.

And for those operators who do their own engine maintenance (there must still be some) you'd expect some hesitation about introducing an engine with mostly different parts - carriers generally want to avoid mixed fleets where they can. None of the comments above actually identify a 1000-TEN order for a 788 or 789...


All engine maintenance is covered by RR TotalCare, different parts is not the biggest concern for the airline anymore. They pay for TotalCare service.

kurtverbose wrote:
I don't know about 75% new parts.


See https://www.rolls-royce.com/~/media/Fil ... 00-TEN.pdf

“This is not a roll-up of other package improvements. The TEN is around a 70-75 per cent part change from the package ‘C’ version in service today. The LP system turbomachinery is largely unaffected but it is basically a new core and new associated systems,” says Gareth Jones, Chief Engineer Trent 1000.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Wed Aug 09, 2017 3:32 pm

As Trent 1000-TEN testing on the 787 testbed is nearing completion (note that the engine itself is already certified), RR is ready to dispatch a pair of production engines to Boeing:

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https://twitter.com/oliwalkerjones/stat ... 2829844481
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Wed Aug 09, 2017 8:17 pm

Funny how there's much more from RR on twitter than there is on their own website.

They are a nice looking pair (Ooh er).
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 10:36 am

How much Advance 3 technology is in the 1000-TEN core?
Is it fair to assume that this engine will give the 787-10 a little more range?
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 10:39 am

parapente wrote:
How much Advance 3 technology is in the 1000-TEN core?
Is it fair to assume that this engine will give the 787-10 a little more range?


787-10 with RR was offered based on TEN performance, wasn't it?
backport to 789 ( and finally 788 added ) was a more recent decission !?
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 12:09 pm

parapente wrote:
How much Advance 3 technology is in the 1000-TEN core?

As said earlier the T-TEN is already flying whilst the Advance 3 is just hitting the test stand now so it seems silly (i.e. it's marketing talk) to say Advance 3 tech is in T-TEN.
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 2:27 pm

WIederling wrote:
parapente wrote:
How much Advance 3 technology is in the 1000-TEN core? Is it fair to assume that this engine will give the 787-10 a little more range?

787-10 with RR was offered based on TEN performance, wasn't it? backport to 789 ( and finally 788 added ) was a more recent decission !?


The TEN is about efficiency more than performance. The Trent 1000-J2 and K2 (nee Trent 1000-Z) both already offer 78K thrust on the 787-9. The GEnx1B-78 offers 80K thrust, but I have not found anything definitive on the TEN that says it offers more thrust than the J2/K2.

As for offering the TEN on the 787-8 and 787-9, that has been planned since at least 2014 per an article on the engine in the 2014 Engine Yearbook.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 2:47 pm

Stitch wrote:
The Trent 1000-J2 and K2 (nee Trent 1000-Z) both already offer 78K thrust on the 787-9. The GEnx1B-78 offers 80K thrust,


And the Trent 1000‐R3, introduced in July 2016, offers 81K thrust.

See https://www.easa.europa.eu/system/files ... 07_1.0.pdf

but I have not found anything definitive on the TEN that says it offers more thrust than the J2/K2.


Well, https://www.rolls-royce.com/products-an ... -1000.aspx says:

This latest variant of the Trent 1000 is the perfect partner for the Boeing 787-10 offering increased thrust,


I wonder if the 78K thrust on the TEN refers to continuous thrust, instead of takeoff?
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 3:10 pm

Yes all the 2014-2015 articles mention "increased thrust to 76K and 78K", so it looks like Rolls was able to reach this thrust on the "baseline" engine, as well. Which makes sense in that the TEN is not structurally different, just improvements to the innards. So if Rolls back-fitted the improved IP designed for the TEN onto the latest members of the current engine series, that would account for the thrust bumps to 76-81K we see on the J/K/N/Q/R.

Maximum continuous currently tops out at just under 73K, so a 5K boost seems unlikely - at least not without a complimentary boost on the Take-Off thrust to the mid-80s.
 
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Re: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Thu Aug 10, 2017 6:35 pm

Stitch wrote:
The TEN is about efficiency more than performance.


"Efficiency" is one vector of performance.
I never wrote it had more thrust.
Murphy is an optimist
 
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Re: RE: RR Prepares T1000-TEN First Flight

Fri Aug 11, 2017 11:49 pm

BreninTW wrote:
I'm curious about how these engines are flight-tested. Especially since this one is so close to the ground.

I'm assuming all four engines are started up normally prior to commencing the take-off roll. The three 744 engines are run up to full T/O thrust while the engine being tested is left at idle, or do they balance the thrust and use the in-testing engine as a fourth 744 engine?

Once the testbed has taken off, the engine being tested is run through the various tests scheduled for that flight.

What happens if the single 744 engine on the same wing as the test engine fails past V1? Do they run up the test engine to equivalent thrust to complete a 3-engine takeoff or do they risk aborting? Or is the aircraft sufficiently light that they can accomplish a takeoff with just two engines? In the greater trade-offs in life, damaging a test engine with FOD is lower cost than trying to abort and running the aircraft off the end of the runway and potentially costing the lives of all on board.

It isn't trivial testing an engine so low to the ground. However, an engine must be tested at all appropriate Mach numbers.
Early takeoffs might takeoff lightly loaded with three engines.

Later on a fleet of Street street sweepers will make sure that runway is clean. Teams will ensure the runway is clean. A team will calculate exactly where each thrust lever should be (on the test engine, the controls will be hacked and the pilots only command full throttle, flight idle, cruise and maybe thrust reverse (usually not this low, but I've seen crazier). The precise thrust is controlled by the engineer in the back.

There is a reason experimental aircraft must be stenciled above every door, including the entry into the 747 avionics Bay behind the front gear.

I love 747 test beds. Deactivate the center fuel tank and you easily take off on 3 engines. No muss, no fuss. Recall how light the plane is loaded. Instead of 50 or so tons of payload, it is maybe 15 tons of engine and engineering stuff and crew. They've sold most of the seats, galleys, and lavs off for spares long ago, so there is several more tons of saved weight. The flights without the test engine providing thrust rarely have more than 8 hours of fuel, so a 747 is a rocket with plenty of spare thrust.

Heck, the thing is too light, so those weights they use to proof load elevators or proof cranes are fixed onto the cargo floor to help with weight balance.

And everybody on board signs a waiver and goes through a bunch of training. To say the least, those 8 evacuation spool reels in the cockpit are verified in cert. Another 8 evacuation reels are bolted in a standard position by L1 and R1. And everyone knows how to dive down through the avionics compartment to get out. And the floor plates to the cargo hold have the carpet removed for quick access. Let's not forget the L5 door escape rope or top deck slide... Every seat has an oxygen bottle and first flight is by only parachute trained crew. OK, part of why I like 747 test beds is the flight test crew can get out!

So this allows doing tests that would be insane with passengers. Such as the required test of the low altitude, low Mach number, 1.5 G turn to verify no compressor stall at maximum takeoff thrust. :). Yea... Lots of 1.5G turns at different Mach numbers and thrust levels... Lots of thrust transients... Everything needed to be certain a new plane can fly with two of the new engine must be tested before a new airframe enters flight test.

Yes, the Trent 1000 is an upgrade. But high altitude relight, in flight shutdown (cold soaked) and other tests must be done.

Even crosswind flying at different thrust levels to try and induce stalls.

But for the low ground clearance, much more is spent keeping the runway clean.

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