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Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Mon Jun 04, 2018 10:12 pm

RAF Marham runway resurfaced ahead of F-35 arrival

Preparations for the arrival of the UK’s new F-35 multi-role combat aircraft have taken a major step forward with the completion of resurfacing work on the secondary runway at RAF Marham. This took place with little to no impact on operational activity, the UK Defence Ministry announced today, June 4.

Preparations for the arrival of the UK’s new F-35 multi-role combat aircraft have taken a major step forward with the completion of resurfacing work on the secondary runway at RAF Marham. This took place with little to no impact on operational activity, the UK Defence Ministry announced today, June 4.

The first F-35 Lightning aircraft are due to arrive at their new home at RAF Marham shortly. The game-changing aircraft, which will be operated by both the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy, will be based at RAF Marham. Preparations are on track for the aircraft to be able to deploy from RAF Marham to deployed operating bases by the end of the year. In due course they will also deploy to the Royal Navy’s Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carriers.

The resurfacing work was undertaken by the Defence Infrastructure Organisation (DIO) through its contractors, a joint venture of Galliford Try and Lagan Construction. It forms part of a £250 million DIO programme of investment at the station and involves resurfacing about 90% of the airfield operating surfaces; all of this while the Tornado Force maintained operations from the airfield.

Rob Dawson, DIO’s Principal Project Manager, said:
The completion of the resurfacing of the secondary runway is one a series of milestones for the work DIO and our contractors are undertaking to prepare RAF Marham to be the main operating base for the new F-35B aircraft. Along with work being completed by our colleagues at Defence Equipment and Support, this investment will transform RAF Marham with a host of new and upgraded facilities for the aircraft and the men and women who will operate them.

"It’s fantastic to have the secondary runway handed back to the station after the completion of the resurfacing in preparation for the imminent arrival of the F-35 Lightning. To see the Tornado’s take off from it for the first time was a real milestone in the programme and we look forward to the next historic event in the next couple of weeks when the F-35’s will touch down on the new runway as it arrives at its home base for the first time," RAF Marham Station Commander Group Captain Ian Townsend said:

"The Galliford Try Lagan Construction joint venture is delighted to have successfully reached this important stage of the project. We have a well-established relationship with DIO and this, combined with our experience of complex airside work, augurs very well for the remainder of the programme," James Aikman, Project Director, Galliford Try Lagan Construction, said.

Resurfacing the 1,855m long runway required the construction of two batching plants to prepare the specific asphalt and concrete needed for the new surface. Preparing the materials on site increased efficiency.
RAF Marham is currently the home of the RAF’s Tornado fleet, which will begin operating from the runway immediately before being joined by the F-35s in due course. With the aircraft currently on operations it was important that this activity could be maintained without restriction. During the work, flying was only halted for three weeks while construction teams resurfaced an intersection between the main runway and the secondary runway. This was completed a day early despite poor weather.
The remainder of the work being undertaken at RAF Marham continues, including construction of three vertical landing pads to enable the F-35s to use their vertical landing capability and a squadron headquarters for 617 Squadron (The Dambusters).
Other work includes a high voltage power upgrade, refurbishment of 12 Hardened Aircraft Shelters and a small gym and canteen as well as a hangar, offices and technical facilities for 207 Squadron.

http://www.airrecognition.com/index.php ... rival.html
 
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Mortyman
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 05, 2018 6:59 am

Ozair wrote:
Mortyman wrote:

Is it me or does the F-35 look shortened in that photo ? Looks like a baby F-35 in that photo

It does look short but I think the image has been adjusted. I do like the often used nickname for the F-35 of "Stubby" given its broader waist but similar length to the F-16.

Speaking of Israel F-35, this image was posted on Fightersweep the other day, which shows a graphic of Israel F-35Is with camo and external fuel tanks...

Image



Are there external fuel tanks available for the F35? I know some F-22 were fitted out with it for a trip to Japan, but I haven't seen any F-35 with it...
 
ZaphodHarkonnen
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 05, 2018 8:59 am

Mortyman wrote:
Ozair wrote:
Mortyman wrote:

Is it me or does the F-35 look shortened in that photo ? Looks like a baby F-35 in that photo

It does look short but I think the image has been adjusted. I do like the often used nickname for the F-35 of "Stubby" given its broader waist but similar length to the F-16.

Speaking of Israel F-35, this image was posted on Fightersweep the other day, which shows a graphic of Israel F-35Is with camo and external fuel tanks...

Image



Are there external fuel tanks available for the F35? I know some F-22 were fitted out with it for a trip to Japan, but I haven't seen any F-35 with it...


Pretty sure there are plans for drop tanks for the F-35 but they're not yet cleared to carry them.

Remember that the integral fuel capacity of the F-35 is pretty much a previous generation fighter with drop tanks. So there is no immediate need to get drop tanks on them yet.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 05, 2018 11:50 am

ZaphodHarkonnen wrote:
Mortyman wrote:
Ozair wrote:
It does look short but I think the image has been adjusted. I do like the often used nickname for the F-35 of "Stubby" given its broader waist but similar length to the F-16.

Speaking of Israel F-35, this image was posted on Fightersweep the other day, which shows a graphic of Israel F-35Is with camo and external fuel tanks...

Image



Are there external fuel tanks available for the F35? I know some F-22 were fitted out with it for a trip to Japan, but I haven't seen any F-35 with it...


Pretty sure there are plans for drop tanks for the F-35 but they're not yet cleared to carry them.

Remember that the integral fuel capacity of the F-35 is pretty much a previous generation fighter with drop tanks. So there is no immediate need to get drop tanks on them yet.

There are a couple of concepts floating around and all are very old such as these,

Image

Image

As far as I am aware all work was stopped on external fuel tanks long ago based on analysis that the fuel tanks wouldn't provide much of a range increase. The Israelis appear to be where the requirement has come from and who may desire it for more range given their unique location and threat requirements. There has also been talk of conformal fuel tanks but I'm not sure how accurate that is. A better option than external fuel tanks would likely be an upgrade with an ADVENT type engine in 2025 which promises a 30% increase in range.

For the F-22, it does have external fuel tanks which are used for transit and for some long range interceptions against Russian aircraft. They have the unique ability to be jettisoned with both the tank and pylon to preserve stealth.

Image
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 05, 2018 9:42 pm

F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER: Development Is Nearly Complete, but Deficiencies Found in Testing Need to Be Resolved

Available here, https://www.gao.gov/assets/700/692307.pdf

From what I have read a reasonable review of the current state of the program.
 
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Dutchy
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 06, 2018 6:31 am

Still amazing that there are that many deficiencies at the phase.

As of January 2018, the F-35 programme had 966 open deficiencies—111 category one deficiencies, which could jeopardise safety, security, or another critical requirement; and 855 category two deficiencies, which could impede or constrain a successful mission, according to the GAO. At least 25 category one deficiencies and 165 category two deficiencies would not be resolved before planned full-rate production.


https://www.flightglobal.com/news/artic ... -d-449236/
Many happy landings, greetings from The Netherlands!
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 06, 2018 10:16 am

Dutchy wrote:
Still amazing that there are that many deficiencies at the phase.

As of January 2018, the F-35 programme had 966 open deficiencies—111 category one deficiencies, which could jeopardise safety, security, or another critical requirement; and 855 category two deficiencies, which could impede or constrain a successful mission, according to the GAO. At least 25 category one deficiencies and 165 category two deficiencies would not be resolved before planned full-rate production.


https://www.flightglobal.com/news/artic ... -d-449236/

Noting that between now and the end of OT&E those 111 category one deficiencies will drop to approx 25 and the category two from 855 to 165 there are obviously fixes either in place or in the process of being incorporated so it is not as extreme as it sounds. It appears, and is quite common in systems development, that these may not be able to be retired until the aircraft actually conducts OT&E as that is where the fixes are verified and validated. I anticipate that some of these outstanding deficiencies will be caught by Blk 4 when it arrives and the agile software development planned will cover off on high priority category one and two software issues.

It is also worth noting that some of those deficiencies may never be solved because the requirement that created it has changed or been superseded but may not be able to be retired. Military aircraft progress progress through their lives with deficiencies from their dev program, numerous examples exist today from the F-22 and SH programs.

Finally it would be interesting to know the break down of how many of these impact the aircraft directly and how many are rolled up in ancillary systems such as ALIS or production line equipment. As the GAO report is up to mid Feb and it is now into June there could prospectively be a lot that have been fixed and retired already.
 
LightningZ71
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 06, 2018 9:20 pm

Something to consider, the F-18 E/F went into the year 2000 with nearly 100 defined deficiencies that included issues with stability and performance shortfalls in certain flight regimes. Many of those deficiencies were never resolved as requirements were amended, or work on those issues was deemed too expensive to pursue for the degree of the deficiency. Some were just considered unsolvable and just left to training to inform pilots so as not to get into situations where it would cause a safety problem.

(this is a bit of a look into the F-18 program that talks about some of those issues... https://books.google.com/books?id=syS19 ... 15&f=false
)

Every air force program in the last 30+ years has gone into normal operation with a list of issues that range from mildly annoying to potentially lethal to the untrained. The question is, is the platform capable of performing the missions intended for it without putting its operators in unnecessary danger and in a sustainable fashion? The F-35 is very nearly there by everything we're seeing as the public. Is it perfect? Hardly. It's a cutting edge piece of hardware that is still under development and will continue to be in development even after it's in general deployment.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 06, 2018 9:50 pm

This is certainly a vote of confidence in the program. While the House typically increases the buy each year on top of the requests made by the services this is an over 20% increase.

House eyes major boost in F-35 jet purchases

A defense spending bill being considered in the House would dramatically boost funding for the Pentagon to buy more F-35 joint strike fighters in 2019.

The House Appropriations Committee released a draft version of its annual defense bill Wednesday that provides $9.4 billion for 93 of the high-tech Lockheed Martin aircraft, which is 16 more than the 77 requested by the military.

The bill also differs from the two versions of the annual defense authorization bills being put forward by the House and Senate. The House has authorized 77 F-35s while the Senate is weighing the purchase of 75 due to cost concerns about sustaining the aircraft.

The $675 billion appropriations bill is slated for a mark up in the House Appropriations defense subcommittee on Thursday. The Senate has yet to release a defense appropriations bill.

“With the changing global dynamics and ever-growing threats to our security, it is absolutely imperative that our military is properly trained, equipped, and fully supported in order to do their jobs,” Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen, R-N.J., the committee chairman, said in a statement.

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/poli ... -purchases
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 12, 2018 3:17 am

Lockheed Martin F-35 Fighter Poised To Become One Of America's Biggest Exports

The Pentagon's F-35 fighter has completed its development program and begun deploying overseas. About 300 have been delivered, and that number will double by the end of 2020. The U.S. military plans to buy 2,443 of the stealthy aircraft in three distinct variants tailored to the needs of the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.

To date, public discussion of F-35 has focused mainly on what the fighter can do for U.S. warfighters, and at what cost. But there is another dimension to the F-35 story, and that is the positive impact the plane will have on America's trade balance as overseas friends and allies acquire well over a thousand of the fighters, mainly to replace aging F-16s bought during the Cold War.

The F-35 program from its inception has had eight partner countries that helped pay for its development and now are poised to purchase over 600 of the planes. But that is just the beginning of the program's trade impact. An additional 800 planes are expected to be bought by other countries through the Foreign Military Sales program. That process has already begun, with Israel, Japan and South Korea signing on before development was even completed.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/lorenthomp ... 4eef14d54d

More at the link above but no surprise that manufacturing an aircraft that will likely see 1000+ orders outside the US should be a significant benefit for the US and partner economies. That is before you factor the expected 40 years of service most airframes are likely to provide and the support contracts associated with that.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 12, 2018 1:56 pm

Pentagon And Lockheed Martin Deliver 300th F-35 Aircraft

The F-35 Joint Program Office and Lockheed Martin [NYSE: LMT] delivered the 300th production F-35 aircraft, demonstrating the program’s continued progress and momentum. The 300th aircraft is a U.S. Air Force F-35A, to be delivered to Hill Air Force Base, Utah.

"The F-35 weapons system is a key enabler of our National Defense Strategy and is providing our warfighters the combat proven, advanced capabilities they need to meet mission requirements," said Vice Admiral Mat Winter, program executive officer for the F-35 Joint Program Office. "The 300th production aircraft delivery is a significant milestone that highlights the effective F-35 Enterprise collaboration across the JPO, U.S. services, partners and industry. Moving forward, our F-35 team remains committed to driving costs down, quality up and faster delivery timelines across our development, production and sustainment lines of effort."

The first 300 F-35s include 197 F-35A conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variants, 75 F-35B short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) variants, and 28 F-35C carrier variants (CV) and have been delivered to U.S. and international customers. More than 620 pilots and 5,600 maintainers have been trained, and the F-35 fleet has surpassed more than 140,000 cumulative flight hours.


https://www.f35.com/news/detail/pentago ... 5-aircraft

More at the link above. Pretty impressive numbers in bold including now past 140k flight hours.

The 300th F-35.
Image
 
ZaphodHarkonnen
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Re: F-35 news thread

Tue Jun 12, 2018 2:07 pm

As someone on another forum pointed out. This means there have now been more F-35As built than the entire F-22 production run. 197 vs 195.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 13, 2018 10:05 pm

Not sure I agree with the article's title given NG made it clear they didn’t see the business potential of the deal stacking up to their internal requirements and were happy to cede the market to Raytheon. What it does show though is how LM and the JPO are driving cost out and increasing capability at the same time.

‘Major Upset’ As Lockheed Ditches Northrop For F-35 DAS Sensor

Northrop Grumman was pushed aside today by Lockheed Martin as it picked Raytheon to build perhaps the F-35’s most important sensor, the Distributed Aperture System.

“It’s a major upset,:” Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group said when I asked him to discuss the signficance of the decision. “And from a revenue standpoint, F-35 remains almost the only game in town. It also shows that they’re determined to reduce F-35 costs. Major component changes like these are extremely rare, particularly at this stage of a procurement program.”

Northrop Grumman’s system, long touted as a revolutionary capability allowing pilots to see all around their aircraft, top to bottom, front to back and giving the F-35 the power to detect missile launches from as much as 1,000 miles away (the standard official number is 800), as well as allowing the plane to target ground artillery, has had problems for years. The 2015 report by the director of Operational Test and Evaluation said this: “The F-35B fleet exhibited only a 14 percent average FMC rate, however. Failures in the Distributed Aperture System (DAS), electronic warfare (EW) system, and Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) were the highest drivers pushing aircraft into Partial Mission Capable (PMC) status.” The OTE usually lists problems in their order of importance. And Lockheed made a point of saying in today’s announcement that the Raytheon system will provide five times the reliability of Northrop’s product.

The Raytheon win should mean “billions” in revenue for the company, according to Loren Thompson, a defense consultant and member of the Breaking Defense Board of Contributors.

“The DAS win will be worth billions of dollars to Raytheon across the lifetime of the F-35 fighter program. The shift in suppliers is part of a broader push by Lockheed Martin to wring cost out of the program,” he notes. “With most of the technical risk now retired from the program, cost reduction has become a top priority for managers.”

Lockheed signaled its dissatisfaction with Northrop at the Singapore Air Show in April when Lockheed’s director of F-35 international business development, Steve Over, told Aviation Week: “We’ve found a supplier that can produce a better DAS system at a significantly lower price that has significantly better performance. So, we’re trying to find a way to break that into production right now. It’s somebody other than Northrop.”

The Raytheon-built DAS will be integrated into F-35 aircraft starting with Lot 15 aircraft, expected to begin deliveries in 2023.

https://breakingdefense.com/2018/06/maj ... as-sensor/

Some of the value from the switch.

Image
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 13, 2018 10:24 pm

No specific clarification on what the Growth 2.0 provides other than "Significant" but given the growth 1.0 option is 10% thrust and 6% fuel reduction you would expect close to double those numbers for Growth 2.0. Would be interesting to know how much of Growth 2.0 could be retrofitted to older engines or if a straight engine swap would be necessary.

Pratt & Whitney is pitching a new version of the F-35 engine

Pratt & Whitney is developing upgrades to the F-35’s engine that will give it the power and cooling necessary to make the U.S. Defense Department’s most sensor-heavy fighter jet even more of a powerhouse.

The new Growth Option 2.0 upgrade for the F135 engine, launched on Tuesday, adds a more advanced power and thermal management system that could be used to help the F-35 incorporate new weapons and sensors, the company said.

It also integrates a new compressor and turbine technologies that yield greater thrust and fuel savings, which were part of the Growth Option 1.0 concept unveiled in 2017.

In a June 12 interview with Defense News, Matthew Bromberg, president of Pratt & Whitney’s military engines unit, said the company decided to work on improvements to the F135’s power and thermal management system, or PTMS, based on feedback from the F-35 Joint Program Office.

Pratt in 2017 tested an early version of the Growth Option 1.0 motor called the fuel burn reduction demonstrator engine, which demonstrated that the upgrade could improve thrust by up to 10 percent and reduce fuel consumption by up to 6 percent.

But while the community that flies the F-35B short-takeoff-and-vertical-landing variant was gung-ho on the thrust improvements, the JPO said that better power and cooling was what was really needed — especially as the program transitions from the development phase to modernization, also known as Block 4 or Continuous Capability Development and Delivery, Bromberg said.

Pratt has already begun testing some technologies from the Growth Option 2.0 suite in various rigs and demonstrators. Bromberg called the upgrades “relatively low risk” and said it could probably be proven out in a four-year technology demonstration program.

But he declined to talk about completed testing or to quantify the new power and cooling improvements, saying only that they were “significant.”

Although the Defense Department hasn’t signed onto an upgraded F135 engine as part of the Continuous Capability Development and Delivery effort, Pratt executives have been hopeful that it will do so as it finalizes that strategy.

“As the F-35 program moves forward with the Continuous Capability Development and Delivery strategy, we strive to stay in front of propulsion advances needed to enable F-35 modernization,” Bromberg said in a statement. “We’re continuously assessing customer needs and responding with technology options to keep them ahead of evolving threats.”

https://www.defensenews.com/industry/20 ... 35-engine/
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Wed Jun 13, 2018 10:27 pm

More oversight for the program that already has more scrutiny and review processes than any other in recent US military history.

Senate Wants More Oversight of F-35 Sustainment Costs

The U.S. Senate has approved a proposal that would require the Pentagon to regularly brief lawmakers on efforts to contain sustainment costs for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

The measure would require that the U.S Defense Department, in its quarterly F-35 program briefings to the congressional defense panels, include “an assessment of efforts to ensure that excessive sustainment costs do not threaten the ability to purchase the required number of aircraft.”

The proposal, by Sen. Todd Young, received Senate approval late June 11 as an amendment to the fiscal year 2019 defense authorization bill. The bill already called for quarterly program updates but did not specifically require that they address efforts to curb sustainment costs.

Military leaders have expressed concern about the F-35’s high sustainment costs, saying they must come down for the plane to be affordable. For example, the Air Force, which plans to buy 1,763 Lockheed Martin-built F-35s, more than any other service, hopes to wring out enough savings to allow the stealth fighter’s sustainment costs to match those of legacy fighters.

http://www.aviationtoday.com/2018/06/13 ... ent-costs/
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Thu Jun 14, 2018 11:49 pm

Ex-Rolls-Royce engineer nicked on suspicion of giving F-35 info to China

A former Rolls-Royce engineer has reportedly been arrested on suspicion of breaching the Official Secrets Act by allegedly handing British F-35 engine secrets to China.

Rolls-Royce's one-time chief combustion technologist Bryn Jones, 73, was arrested at his Derbyshire, UK, home by the Metropolitan Police's Counter Terrorism Command on Tuesday.

MI5 is said to have received intelligence that "classified defence information" may have been passed to China as part of a plot involving Jones. Jones was apprehended during an "ultra discreet" police operation that included a search of a nearby office.

The Sun reported that the engineer, who left Rolls-Royce in 2003 for academic and consultancy roles, had 40 years' experience "in the development of new combustion technology for aero gas turbines and aero derivative engines".

Jones is reportedly a visiting professor in gas turbine combustion at China's Aeronautical University of Xian.

The F-35B, which is the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) variant of the supersonic stealth fighter, has a lift fan that rotates its jet engine's thrust through 90 degrees for takeoffs and landings. The lift fan mechanism was mostly designed by Rolls-Royce, building on the original design work for the Pegasus engine that powered the Harrier jump-jet. It makes up a significant chunk of the 15 per cent of each F-35B that is built in Britain.

Exact details of the lift fan's design and construction are highly classified, not least because such details could not only give an adversary key information about radar and infrared signatures but also let them copy the design. China has already put together a visual replica of the F-35A, variously named in Western media as the J-31 or FC-31, and a STOVL version of that aircraft could cause headaches for Western militaries in years to come.

A Met Police spokesman said: "At approximately 1425 hours on Tuesday officers arrested a man in Derbyshire as part of an investigation under the Official Secrets Act. The man, who is in his 70s and worked within private industry, has been taken to a police station in Derbyshire where he remains in custody."

The Daily Telegraph later reported that Jones had been released from police custody.

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/06/1 ... legations/

Given he has been released he clearly is not seen as a flight risk. He finished up in 2004 so an info he may have provided is a few years out of date now.
 
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Mortyman
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Re: F-35 news thread

Fri Jun 15, 2018 1:24 am

Ozair wrote:
Lockheed Martin F-35 Fighter Poised To Become One Of America's Biggest Exports

The Pentagon's F-35 fighter has completed its development program and begun deploying overseas. About 300 have been delivered, and that number will double by the end of 2020. The U.S. military plans to buy 2,443 of the stealthy aircraft in three distinct variants tailored to the needs of the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.

To date, public discussion of F-35 has focused mainly on what the fighter can do for U.S. warfighters, and at what cost. But there is another dimension to the F-35 story, and that is the positive impact the plane will have on America's trade balance as overseas friends and allies acquire well over a thousand of the fighters, mainly to replace aging F-16s bought during the Cold War.

The F-35 program from its inception has had eight partner countries that helped pay for its development and now are poised to purchase over 600 of the planes. But that is just the beginning of the program's trade impact. An additional 800 planes are expected to be bought by other countries through the Foreign Military Sales program. That process has already begun, with Israel, Japan and South Korea signing on before development was even completed.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/lorenthomp ... 4eef14d54d

More at the link above but no surprise that manufacturing an aircraft that will likely see 1000+ orders outside the US should be a significant benefit for the US and partner economies. That is before you factor the expected 40 years of service most airframes are likely to provide and the support contracts associated with that.


Bigger than the F-16 program ?
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Fri Jun 15, 2018 2:29 am

Mortyman wrote:
Bigger than the F-16 program ?

Interesting question. Perhaps the comparative increased price of an F-35 compared to an F-16 provides the program with a greater overall export value? The F-16 program also manufactured a lot of aircraft outside the US, two lines in Europe and one in Turkey and Korea, but for the F-35 so far only Italy and Japan will have a FACO. Japan has paid significantly for that and Italy may lose some future production if they don’t order enough aircraft.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sat Jun 16, 2018 1:20 pm

An interview with the Chief of the Air Staff for Denmark. All the questions asked of him are at the link but some good info on how and when Denmark plan to introduce the F-35.

Denmark’s air chief on standing up the F-35 and dealing with Russia

Denmark’s government announced its intent to buy 27 F-35A joint strike fighters in June 2016. The aircraft were meant to become the backbone of the Danish Air Force for years to come. But standing up the jets with a relatively small force, while taking part in operations around the globe, has created a headache for planners in Copenhagen.

Maj. Gen. Anders Rex, Denmark’s chief of the air staff, is in charge of making that transition work. During a recent visit to Copenhagen, Rex sat down with Defense News to explain how that transition will happen and describe the country’s interaction with Russia in recent years.

https://www.defensenews.com/smr/nato-pr ... th-russia/
 
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Mortyman
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sat Jun 16, 2018 6:52 pm

Ozair wrote:
An interview with the Chief of the Air Staff for Denmark. All the questions asked of him are at the link but some good info on how and when Denmark plan to introduce the F-35.

Denmark’s air chief on standing up the F-35 and dealing with Russia

Denmark’s government announced its intent to buy 27 F-35A joint strike fighters in June 2016. The aircraft were meant to become the backbone of the Danish Air Force for years to come. But standing up the jets with a relatively small force, while taking part in operations around the globe, has created a headache for planners in Copenhagen.

Maj. Gen. Anders Rex, Denmark’s chief of the air staff, is in charge of making that transition work. During a recent visit to Copenhagen, Rex sat down with Defense News to explain how that transition will happen and describe the country’s interaction with Russia in recent years.

https://www.defensenews.com/smr/nato-pr ... th-russia/


27 aircraft is a very low number I think ...
 
josepha1
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 12:16 am

How many losses has the F-35 had vs. other fighters jets in the same time period of testing, ect.?
 
ThePointblank
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 2:15 am

josepha1 wrote:
How many losses has the F-35 had vs. other fighters jets in the same time period of testing, ect.?

For the F-35, only one can be considered a loss; it was a F-35A that suffered a engine fire while on the ground.

In the case of the F-16, within a year of introduction into service, 2 aircraft were written off as total losses out of a total fleet size of 96, with an annual loss rate of about 2% for the first 5 years of service. The attrition rate then declined, to about 0.13% today.
 
vr773
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 12:56 pm

Ozair wrote:
Lockheed Martin F-35 Fighter Poised To Become One Of America's Biggest Exports

The Pentagon's F-35 fighter has completed its development program and begun deploying overseas. About 300 have been delivered, and that number will double by the end of 2020. The U.S. military plans to buy 2,443 of the stealthy aircraft in three distinct variants tailored to the needs of the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.

To date, public discussion of F-35 has focused mainly on what the fighter can do for U.S. warfighters, and at what cost. But there is another dimension to the F-35 story, and that is the positive impact the plane will have on America's trade balance as overseas friends and allies acquire well over a thousand of the fighters, mainly to replace aging F-16s bought during the Cold War.

The F-35 program from its inception has had eight partner countries that helped pay for its development and now are poised to purchase over 600 of the planes. But that is just the beginning of the program's trade impact. An additional 800 planes are expected to be bought by other countries through the Foreign Military Sales program. That process has already begun, with Israel, Japan and South Korea signing on before development was even completed.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/lorenthomp ... 4eef14d54d

More at the link above but no surprise that manufacturing an aircraft that will likely see 1000+ orders outside the US should be a significant benefit for the US and partner economies. That is before you factor the expected 40 years of service most airframes are likely to provide and the support contracts associated with that.


Author is on Lockheed Martin's payroll so that article is more fan mail than analysis. Thanks for posting though.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 9:48 pm

Mortyman wrote:

27 aircraft is a very low number I think ...

Agree 27 is not a great number but you need to put the new fleet into context with the old. Denmark initially acquired 58 F-16A/Bs, ordered a second batch of 12 aircraft and then acquired 8 attrition replacements. Like the Dutch who initially ordered a total of 177 F-16s and now operate 61, the Danes operate 30 F-16 aircraft today, so that fleet reduction is right in line with European trends for reduction in fighter jet numbers. Even Norway operates now only 46 of an initial 72 F-16 ordered.

vr773 wrote:
Author is on Lockheed Martin's payroll so that article is more fan mail than analysis. Thanks for posting though.

I'm not sure what your point is?

Loren Thompson clearly declares that LM is a contributor to the Lexington Institute in his bio and in all the articles he writes on the F-35.

I focus on the strategic, economic and business implications of defense spending as the Chief Operating Officer of the non-profit Lexington Institute and Chief Executive Officer of Source Associates. Prior to holding my present positions, I was Deputy Director of the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University and taught graduate-level courses in strategy, technology and media affairs at Georgetown. I have also taught at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. I hold doctoral and masters degrees in government from Georgetown University and a bachelor of science degree in political science from Northeastern University. Disclosure: The Lexington Institute receives funding from many of the nation’s leading defense contractors, including Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon and United Technologies


But still what does that matter. I'm hardly posting only positive articles on the F-35 in this thread, I post the good, bad and ugly so in that context what difference does an article from Loren Thompson make, especially when what he is talking about is almost entirely based on facts and informed assessment? If you disagree on what he has stated, then given this is a forum, there is clearly an opportunity to discuss it.

So…which parts do you consider fan mail and why?
Last edited by Ozair on Sun Jun 17, 2018 10:00 pm, edited 1 time in total.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 9:59 pm

ThePointblank wrote:
josepha1 wrote:
How many losses has the F-35 had vs. other fighters jets in the same time period of testing, ect.?

For the F-35, only one can be considered a loss; it was a F-35A that suffered a engine fire while on the ground.

In the case of the F-16, within a year of introduction into service, 2 aircraft were written off as total losses out of a total fleet size of 96, with an annual loss rate of about 2% for the first 5 years of service. The attrition rate then declined, to about 0.13% today.

Additionally the F-35A that had the engine fire is being repaired so won't be recorded as a hull loss.

As stated previously the F-35 SDD program has been the most extensive aviation testing program in history and additionally one could argue one of the most conservative to prevent aircrew and aircraft loss. Had the program moved with the haste of the 50s, 60s and even 70s, the aircraft would likely have been in service years earlier but perhaps minus a couple of test airframes and pilots.
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 10:24 pm

Interesting that the first Dutch F-35A to be received will come from the Italian FACO.

Work On The First European-built F-35 For The Netherlands Starts At Cameri FACO in Italy

On Jun. 15, Dutch Secretary of State for Defense Barbara Visser gave a symbolic start signal to the assembly of the first F-35 for the RNlAF at Cameri Final Assembly and Check Out (FACO), in northwestern Italy. She did so by placing her signature on the hull of the AN-9, the ninth of the Netherlands’ 37 F-35A CTOL (Conventional Take Off and Landing) stealth jets on order. The first eight F-35A are being assembled at Lockheed Martin’s Fort Worth facility in the U.S. with two F-35s already used for testing at Edwards AFB, California, and the rest heading to Luke Air Force Base for pilot training.

AN-9 will be the first F-35 to arrive in the Netherlands: the aircraft is expected to roll off the production line in February 2019. It will undertake test and acceptance flights in Italy before moving to Leeuwarden in October 2019.

On May 23, 2016, the first two Dutch F-35A aircraft, AN-1 (F-001) and AN-2 (F-002), arrived at Leeuwarden air base, in the Netherlands, at the end of the type’s first eastbound transatlantic crossing, for a short “tour” in anticipation of the type’s final arrival at the end of 2019. The two aircraft started their journey to Europe from Edwards Air Force Base, California, and crossed the Pond as “NAF 81” (then “Archer 1” and “Archer 2”) after a stopover in Patuxent River, Maryland, supported by two KDC-10s. During their brief European deployment, on Jun. 10, 2016, the two RNlAF F-35s made the type’s international airshow debut during the “Luchtmachtdagen 2016” airshow at Leeuwarden Air Base.

29 F-35A jets for the Royal Netherlands Air Force will be built at Cameri that has already assembled ten F-35A for the Italian Air Force and the first F-35B for the Italian Navy (out of 60 CTOL and 30 STOVL procured by the Italian MoD).

The Italian FACO, a 101-acre facility including 22 buildings and more than one million square feet of covered work space, housing 11 assembly stations, and five maintenance, repair, overhaul, and upgrade bays, is owned by the Italian Ministry of Defense and is operated by Leonardo in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics. According to Lockheed, 800 skilled personnel are engaged in full assembly of the Conventional Take-off/Landing F-35A and F-35B aircraft variants and is also producing 835 F-35A full wing sets to support all customers in the program. It has the only F-35B production capability outside the United States and was selected in December 2014 as the European F-35 airframe Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul and Upgrade center for the entire European region.

https://theaviationist.com/2018/06/16/w ... -in-italy/
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 10:35 pm

Fair warning, Loren Thompson article...

Good news on the efforts to reduce sustainment of the F135. It appears that there are some reasonably concrete plans in place for this reduction and that the numbers spoken about may be achievable. Additionally these reductions will also assist in reducing sustainment costs for the B-21 which is likely to have a variant of the F135.


Lockheed, Pratt Disclose F-35 Cost-Cutting Moves As Air Force Secretary Presses For Economies

Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson is a formidable intellect. One of the first women to graduate from the Air Force Academy, she became a Rhodes Scholar (D.Phil, Oxford) before serving on the National Security Council staff and then representing New Mexico's First District in Congress for 11 years -- during which she was a member of the armed services and intelligence committees. Like her father and grandfather, she is an instrument-rated pilot. Having spent seven years as an Air Force officer, she knows her service well.

So when Wilson decides to press for changes in a program, chances are she will prevail. One of her top priorities recently has been reducing the life-cycle costs of the F-35 fighter. From a technical and operational perspective, the F-35 has become a smashing success. It has satisfied all of the "key performance parameters" established at its inception, aircraft are being delivered on time, and prices are falling in each successive production lot. But Wilson is not happy about how much it will cost to keep the fighters flying through 2070.

The Navy and Marine Corps will be flying their own versions of the F-35, but Wilson's service will absorb a whopping 72% of the domestic production run -- 1,763 fighters -- as it replaces aging Cold War planes. The Air Force variant is also the version most in demand by U.S. allies (Israel recently used two of them to reach targets in Iran). So Wilson has a double incentive to cut the plane's operating cost -- to assure her own service modernizes in a timely fashion, and to assure allied air forces can afford to keep up.

The Air Force has set a goal of reducing projected operating and support costs across the lifetime of the F-35 program by 38%, which is a tall order for a program that until recently was focused on other matters -- like proving its capabilities in the biggest flight-test program ever executed. Now that the capabilities are demonstrated though (F-35 is achieving 20-to-1 kill ratios against adversary aircraft in exercises) Wilson really wants to get the price down.

She has not been subtle in telling contractors what the stakes are. Simply put, if the cost of "sustainment" -- operations and support -- doesn't fall by the requisite 38%, then the Air Force may have to buy hundreds fewer planes than it was planning. It took Marillyn Hewson, CEO of lead airframe contractor Lockheed Martin, about two nanoseconds to get the message. She formed an internal review panel that figured out how to meet Secretary Wilson's cost goals.

This week, both Lockheed Martin and engine maker Pratt & Whitney disclosed initiatives aimed at cutting costs on the F-35. In the case of Lockheed Martin, it will change suppliers for the F-35's critical "distributed aperture system" that provides spherical protection of the fighter against missiles and aircraft to a distance of over 800 miles. By switching to Raytheon, it says it will cut unit production costs by 45% and post-production sustainment costs by 50%. The latter savings result in part from a 500% gain in reliability.

In the case of engine maker Pratt & Whitney, a unit of United Technologies, the goal is to slash the cost of operating the F-35's engine from $7,000 per hour to $3,500 -- roughly the same cost to operate the engines on legacy F-16 fighters. According to InsideDefense.com, Pratt military-engines chief Matthew Bromberg told a group of journalists this week his goal is to cut engine operating costs by 50% over ten years, so that the Air Force and other F-35 users get a far more capable propulsion system for the same price as legacy systems.

Secretary Wilson told me two months ago there are plenty of ways of cutting aircraft sustainment costs, and now contractors are proving she was right. Lockheed Martin is shifting electronic-warfare system provider BAE Systems to a performance-based subcontract that will greatly reduce costs, and plans similar adjustments with eight other suppliers of critical components. Pratt & Whitney has identified multiple potential modifications to what is already the world's most capable fighter engine that will make it even more capable.

The more recently-produced F-35s are already the highest-performing fighters in the Air Force's fleet. The fighters from production lot nine, funded in 2015, exceed Air Force operational requirements for reliability by 46%, and that performance will likely improve further as the program moves down its learning curve. The F-35 has cost less to build than the government expected in each successive production lot. But Secretary Wilson is right that there are plenty of options for further reducing costs.

Among those options are technology insertions (such as greater automation), process improvements, recompetition of key components, redesign of some parts, and a rethink of how the program's "autonomic logistics" system is configured. In the years since the F-35 award was first made, information technologies have progressed at a furious pace, suggesting that the vast amounts of data the F-35 collects in each flight might be better used to diagnose and predict sustainment issues.

As I have written previously, much of what appears in the media about F-35 operating costs is misleading. Government estimates are all out of date, failing to reflect the most recent operational data. And even if you use those outdated, exaggerated projections, what you discover is that it will cost roughly one day of federal spending per year through 2070 to keep all the F-35s in the joint inventory flying. During most of that time, F-35 will make up a majority of tactical aircraft in the joint fleet.

So the cost of sustainment is not some sort of crisis that threatens the future of F-35. In a way, the current discussion is a good sign: it signals that the discussion has moved on as technical risk has been largely eliminated from the program. But Secretary Wilson is right to press contractors for further cost reductions because the federal budget is headed for big deficits in the years ahead, and her service will be bearing most of the cost of operating F-35. It appears Wilson's efforts are already delivering results for taxpayers and warfighters.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/lorenthomp ... onomies/2/
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 11:00 pm

Loooong article on the stress and fatigue testing of the F-35 variants.

The Marines Are Still Trying To Figure Out When Their F-35Bs Might Literally Fall Apart

Earlier in June 2018, anyone driving on the highways near the city of Wichita, Kansas might have caught a glimpse of what seemed to be a UFO on the back of a large flatbed truck. What they were actually looking at is part of the work being done to answer the very important question of just how long an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter is supposed to last before it's no longer airworthy. So far, the U.S. Air Force's F-35As and U.S. Navy's F-35Cs look to be as durable as expected, but tests on an example of the U.S. Marine Corps's F-35B have exposed more serious issues.

On June 6, 2018, the F-35 aircraft, an A model, arrived at Wichita State University’s National Institute for Aviation Research, or NIAR, as part of the Joint Strike Fighter program's durability testing regimen. Manufacturer Lockheed Martin had sent the jet from its Fort Worth plant to the research facility so that specialists could tear it down and inspect its internal structure to determine whether it had adequately withstood earlier tests. At present, the F-35A, B, and C are all supposed to have a lifespan of 8,000 flight hours.

“As part of the F-35 program, durability ground test aircraft undergo exhaustive testing to validate the structural integrity of the airframe to withstand a variety of maneuvers it will experience throughout its lifetime,” NIAR said in a statement to the Kansas Department of Transportation. The latter organization also released images and other information about the plane on the back of the truck to allay any possible public concerns.

This isn’t the first time NIAR has helped analyze the results of structural and durability tests on F-35 aircraft. In August 2017, the facility received an F-35B model for inspection. The institute also performs a wide array of other aviation testing services for the U.S. government and private companies and hosts two additional centers that it operates in cooperation with the Federal Aviation Administration and the U.S. Air Force.

Lockheed Martin has built a total of six ground test articles, two of each of the three F-35 variants, to support these experiments and has been actively stress and fatigue testing the airframes since 2009. The company and its subcontractors have used a host of different test stands and other equipment to drop and otherwise simulate typical operations and maneuvers that the aircraft will experience during its expected life cycle.

The U.S. military’s central Joint Program Office (JPO) for the Joint Strike Fighter has mandated that testing put each type of jet through testing that simulates the equivalent of three full life cycles, or 24,000 flight hours.

This doesn’t mean that each one of the test F-35s will go through that full amount of abuse or that contractors can’t perform normal, expected repairs and preventive maintenance during the experiments. The objective is to simulate typical use, not simply shake the airframes apart. Lockheed Martin only set aside one of each type specifically for ground fatigue testing, as well. The other three aircraft have gotten subjected to different kinds of stress tests, including getting shot at to see how the airframe might hold up in combat.

The F-35A that arrived at NIAR in June 2018 had just finished the third cycle of tests for that variant. The F-35C was slated to finish its final round of testing in December 2017, but it is unclear if that has occurred and when analysis of the results might begin.

“For all variants, this testing led to discoveries requiring repairs and modifications to production designs and retrofits to fielded aircraft,” the Pentagon’s Office of the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, or DOT&E, reported in its most recent annual review of the program, covering the 2017 fiscal year, which ended on September 30, 2017. This is, of course, exactly why the U.S. military conducts these tests in the first place.

But while the F-35A and C variants look set to meet the stated durability goals, the Marine Corps’ F-35B has had considerably more trouble. The F-35 JPO suspended durability testing on that variant in February 2017 after one of the two test articles finished the second simulated life cycle, according to DOT&E.

“Due to the significant amount of modifications and repairs to bulkheads and other structures, the program declared the F-35B ground test article was no longer representative of the production aircraft, so the JPO deemed it inadequate for further testing,” the Pentagon testing office’s report noted. “The program canceled the testing of the third lifetime with [the F-35B known as] BH-1 and made plans to procure another ground test article, but has not yet done so.”

It is very likely that the F-35Bs structural woes are, in no small part, due to a massive effort early in the Joint Strike Fighter's development to cut the weight of that variant in particular. Beginning in 2004, a group of engineers at Lockheed Martin called the STOVL (Short Take Off/Vertical Landing) Weight Attack Team, or SWAT, found ways to shave more than 2,700 pounds off the Marine Corps' version. They trimmed 1,300 pounds from the A and C types, too.

This weight reduction project was critical to advancing the program at the time, but persistent reports of cracks in bulkheads and other components, along with other issues, have raised questions about what got sacrificed to meet those targets.

Now, there is a very real concern that the B variant may not meet the 8,000 flight hour target. These jets may have a shorter service life than the other types “even with extensive modifications to strengthen the aircraft,” DOT&E warned.

On top of that, these versions are having serious problems with the durability of their wheels specifically. Unlike the F-35As and Cs, the B models have the ability to take off and land vertically, which requires tires that are at the same time durable enough for a conventional landing and soft enough to cushion the jet when it comes straight down.

As it stands now, ground crews have to change the tires, on average, after fewer than 10 full-stop conventional landings, which is less than half the target number. Lockheed Martin has reportedly sourced a possible replacement tire design, but will only begin testing it sometime in late 2018, according to a report on the F-35 program that the Government Accountability Office (GAO), a congressional watchdog, released earlier in June 2018.

Ensuring that the jet’s airframe, as well as other ancillary components, last as long as they’re supposed to, is extremely important for both safety and sustainment reasons. Without an accurate understanding of when the planes will literally fall apart, the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marines Corps, as well as foreign operators, could risk putting pilots in the cockpit of aircraft that simply aren’t airworthy.

It is also an essential component for long-term planning with regards to sustaining the F-35 fleets since these tests will provide additional data on what components are most likely to fail and when. This, in turn, can help give an early sense of what portions of the airframe might need an overhaul or outright replacement, and how much that might cost, during any service life extension program down the road.

The Air Force is already in the process of starting a major life extension project for its F-16C/Ds, as parts of that fleet begin to get near their maximum allowable flight hours. The U.S. Navy is similarly embarking on a similar program to breath additional life into its F/A-18E/F Super Hornets.

Having a good understanding of the structural lifespan of the F-35 could be even more important given the inherent complexities associated with any heavy maintenance on the jets due to their stealthy features. Delays and other setbacks for the Joint Strike Fighter Program, which have extended its development time overall, mean that these issues could come to the fore sooner rather than later, too.

On May 30, 2018, the U.S. Navy, which leads the F-35 JPO at present, awarded Lockheed Martin a contract worth more than $45 million to, in part, to “support service life extension” work on the developmental test Joint Strike Fighters. The oldest members of this fleet of aircraft, which now numbers more than a dozen in total, have been flying for more than a decade already for testing purposes.

An accurate appraisal of how long a lifespan each of the aircraft has will also be increasingly important as the U.S. military looks to move to full-rate production of the aircraft. With more jets coming off the production line, the cost to implement any necessary, but complex structural fixes or improvements will similarly grow.

The aforementioned GAO report was highly critical of the Pentagon’s push to move ahead and step up production without having first fixed a host of unspecified serious deficiencies with the aircraft, including six having to do with the “air vehicle” itself. The review noted that the JPO did not have a well-established plan for how and when to integrate any upgrades into existing and future aircraft as part of its Continuous Capability Development and Delivery (C2D2) concept, either.

The report also pointed out that the JPO has yet to give a full accounting of the costs associated with bringing jets up to the “final” Block 4 standard and building new ones in this configuration or what those aircraft will actually look like in terms of mission systems and capabilities. Any major changes in the aircraft’s structure or other components could change the stressed on certain portions of the airframe and potentially have an impact on the aircraft’s overall lifespan.

It’s worth noting that the JPO determined the existing F-35B ground test article was no longer suitable for tests due to how much the airframe had changed over the course of previous experiments. It did, however, accept the results of the second round of testing.

Not knowing the specific conclusions from the existing testing on any of the F-35 variants, it’s hard to judge how significant the impact of the repairs and configuration changes may or may not have on the jets’ life expectancy. With regards to the F-35B, what may happen is that it could simply end up with a shorter official service life than the other two variants.

If the actual lifespan is closer to 6,000 flight hours, this would put them on par with the U.S. Navy’s F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, which are now slated to get upgrades to extend their lives out to 9,000 hours. The U.S. military will still need to buy another F-35B to be sure, though.

As of yet, inspectors have not yet formally certified any of the three versions as having an approximately 8,000 flight hour-long service life. In the meantime, until these important figures get settled, residents of Wichita and the surrounding environs may continue to see F-35s under wraps heading to NIAR so specialists can examine them.

http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/21 ... fall-apart

F-35A being transported to NIAR
Image

F-35B after a live fire test.
Image
 
Ozair
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Re: F-35 news thread

Sun Jun 17, 2018 11:34 pm

Looks like the US first delivery of a Turkish F-35 will go ahead. Whether in the long term the aircraft leaves the country is probably still up for debate.

US to deliver first F-35 to Turkey on June 21

The U.S. is set to deliver the first F-35 fighter jet to Turkey on June 21 despite opposition in Congress.

A Lockheed Martin spokesman told Defense News that there will be a rollout ceremony at its production facilities in Fort Worth next week.

“The F-35 program traditionally hosts a ceremony to recognize every U.S. and international customer’s first aircraft. The rollout ceremony for Turkey’s first F-35 aircraft is scheduled for June 21,” the spokesman said in a written statement.

“The aircraft will then ferry to Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, where Turkish pilots will join the F-35A training pool.”

AA
The U.S. Senate is due to vote on the annual defense policy bill, which could prevent Turkey from buying F-35 fighter jets.

The F-35s will replace the aging fleet of F-4 and F-16 aircraft. Last December, the Pentagon said that Italy and Turkey would provide the initial heavy maintenance of the F-35 fighter jets and their engines.

Turkish defense firms’ key role in project

The single-pilot and single-engine, fifth-generation JSF/F-35 joint strike fighter stands out as a fighter jet that can perform various missions, such as air-ground assault, reconnaissance, tactics, and defense with low visibility.

The airplanes are being produced in three versions: conventional (horizontal) landing and departure, short take-off and vertical landing, and carrier based (F-35C/CV).

The modern F-35 fighter is being developed and built by U.S. defense contractor Lockheed Martin for the U.S., the U.K., Australia, Italy, Norway, Turkey, the Netherlands, Denmark and Canada in a project worth about $400 billion, making it the world's most expensive weapons program.

In terms of industrial participation, the Turkish defense industry plays an important role in the program as parts supplier for the F-35 program.

Ten Turkish firms, including ASELSAN, Kale Aviation, Microwave and Electronic Systems (MiKES), ROKETSAN, and Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI), are involved in the production of parts and electronic systems, and the engine maintenance for the F-35s.

https://www.yenisafak.com/en/news/us-to ... 21-3413990
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